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Our fastest camera ever, from ISI speeds to 1 kHz VSD imaging!
Some Frame Rates and Resolutions
|Max. Resolution||1312x1082||100 Hz||1312x1082|
|Max. Data Rate||306 MB/sec||250 Hz||768x768|
|Well Depth640x512@5fps||7.5M e-||500 Hz||544x520|
|Well Depth164x128@100fps||5.7M e-||750 Hz||544x324|
|Bit Depth||10 or 12 bits||1000 Hz||544x244|
|Common Features of All Models|
|Imager 3001: Overview|
The OI Imager 3001 image data acquisition and analysis system carries out optical imaging based on both intrinsic optical signal and voltage sensitive dye (VSD) signals-as well as on signals from calcium dyes and other extrinsic optical probes. The Imager 3001 can monitor blood volume and flow changes, as well as arterial pulsation and the respiratory motion of cortex. Explorations of cortical microcirculation with the Imager 3001 may also help improve the spatial resolution and interpretation of functional MRI and PET imaging on human subjects, or even lead to MRI imaging based on activity-dependent changes in new physiological parameters.
The Imager 3001 is not a bare-bone camera-and-frame grabber combination, leaving the user to figure out the means of adapting it to experimental use. Rather, OI offers and supports it as an integrated solution specifically designed for intrinsic optical signal, VSD, and other types of neuronal optical imaging. OI also offers many imaging accessories for use with the Imager 3001, and an on-site installation program to help you get your imaging experiments up and running.
Not only do the imaging functions of the Imager 3001 complement each other, they can also complement non-imaging techniques that may already be used in your lab. Imaged maps provide information about functional context that can be used to guide site selection for electrode recordings (intracellular or extracellular), or to target micro-stimulation, tracer injections, or other experimental manipulations. Designed from the experience of working scientists, the Imager 3001's laboratory interface can communicate with much of the standard equipment found in neurophysiology and biophysics laboratories.
|Imager 3001 Uses and Technical Overview|
Intrinsic Optical Signals
As an intrinsic signal imager, the Imager 3001 system detects tiny intrinsic changes in the optical properties of electrically and/or metabolically active brain tissue (signals as small as 1 part in 10,000 are detectable with signal averaging). The pioneering work of Hill, Keynes, Chance, Jobsis and their colleagues first demonstrated the existence of these intrinsic signals nearly fifty years ago. However, since these signals are very small, their use for imaging of the functional architecture of cortex began only in 1986, as technology and techniques were improved. One source for the activity-dependent optical signal is a small change in the color of the tissue produced by changes in oxygen delivery from oxy-hemoglobin within the capillaries in response to metabolic demand. Other intrinsic signals originate from activity-dependent light scattering changes, and changes in the oxidation states of intrinsic chromophores such as cytochromes.
Intrinsic imaging has facilitated high-resolution imaging of the adult functional architecture of the cerebral cortex in the living brain of mice, rats, guinea pigs, gerbils, ferrets, cats, monkeys and humans. In some animals, activity maps have also been obtained through intact dura and thinned bone, which allows visualization of the development of the functional architecture of the cortex over long periods of time. Success has also been achieved with chronic recording paradigms in larger and adult mammals. Activity-dependent intrinsic signals have also facilitated in-vitro studies in brain slices, and in the isolated but intact mammalian brain.
Voltage Sensitive Dye
The term "voltage sensitive dye" (VSD) is used for compounds that act as optical transducers of membrane potential changes. These probes are used to stain a living preparation. Applied to the brain, they bind to the external surface of the membranes of living cells without interrupting their normal function. Once introduced into a preparation, VSDs rapidly (within a microsecond) alter the intensity and/or wavelengths of fluorescent light they emit as a function of changes in neuronal membrane potential.
Recent improvements in the VSD probes available for in vivo VSD imaging (see the Voltage Sensitive Dyes product sheet for more information) have dramatically increased the signal-to noise-level obtainable-by as much as 10-30 times over previous probes. Combined with the Imager 3001, in vivo or in vitro, voltage sensitive dyes can now provide both fast time resolution and the spatial resolution required to visualize rapid, complex spatio-temporal patterns of neuronal activity.
Calcium Dyes and Other Optical Probes
Calcium signals are usually more than an order of magnitude larger than the VSD signal. Due to this fact, the Imager 3001/M New back thinned 100% fill factor high-resolution camera performs well in detecting small calcium signals, although it is optimized for high light level applications.
See OI's technical white papers for more information on all these imaging techniques
Imager 3001: A Multi-Purpose Approach
The Imager 3001's multi-purpose design is a powerful approach to optical imaging. The intrinsic optical signal and VSD imaging techniques each excel at revealing different information about the brain's functional architecture. Intrinsic optical signal imaging is particularly suited to revealing high-resolution spatial features of the brain's functional architecture. VSD imaging excels at revealing the temporal structure of neuronal responses across regions of exposed brain. And calcium imaging extends the power of the system further. Irrespective of the signal used to extract physiological information, the Imager 3001 is well suited to study nearly all the preparations used in brain research explorations.
|Common Features of All Models|
All Imager 3001 models include the following:
To learn more about current Imager 3001 models, see our product sheets in PDF formats:
IMAGER 3001/M Product Sheet
IMAGER 3001/S Product Sheet
IMAGER 3001/C Product Sheet
IMAGER 3001/Celox Product Sheet
|VDAQ 2.4- Data Acquisition Software|
VDAQ 2.4 (Video Data AcQuisition) is the next-generation data acquisition component of the Imager 3001, running under Windows XP?. VDAQ runs intrinsic and voltage sensitive dye imaging experiments as well as calcium dye and other extrinsic probe experiments. It controls image acquisition, as well as external devices such as a stimulator, respirator, and illumination shutter. All experimental parameters can be saved to disk, to allow easily restoring experimental settings from session to session.
Other external hardware devices can also be controlled and monitored as required according to the experiment. Alternatively, VDAQ can itself be controlled through a serial port connection for awake behaving monkey experiments. VDAQ also has functions for performing the setup tasks that are performed at the beginning of an experimental imaging session. It provides on-line image analysis functions that are critical to monitoring and evaluating the progress and quality of experiments as they unfold. Finally, VDAQ contains the functions used to calibrate and test the video, optical, and image processing components of the instrument.
|LongDaq software for continuous imaging|
LongDaq collects brain imaging data continuously, limited only by the speed and free space of the available storage. It's available as either an add-on to a Vdaq system, or as a system in its own right.
LongDaq, Optical Imaging's cost-effective continuous imaging software, now supports a stim-map feature that provides fine-grained control of stimulus output bits during a continuous imaging session. This provides useful synchronization information and lets LongDaq trigger stimulators and other devices during acquisition.
LongDaq's useful Quality Assurance data is now saved automatically each time data is collected.
Both Vdaq and LongDaq now allow for stimulus input information to be provided via UDP network packets. Previously, such information could only be provided using TTL level inputs.
|Data Analysis Software|
WinMix is a data analysis suite specifically designed to handle data from optical imaging experiments, including those generated using VDAQ. It consists of the new Block Mix scripted data analysis program, plus a combination of powerful interactive tools including Block View and Block Convert. The powerful Block Mix script tool includes display capabilities during analysis, logging of statistics of output images, and syntax highlighting in the edit window.
WinMix's interactive tools include:
Block View is an interactive program for viewing the data files produced during an imaging experiment. Its various display options and simple processing options let you use it for preliminary data analysis. Block View also lets you display a movie of specified frames, and it can compute superpixel graphs showing the average value of a region over the course of many frames.
Block Convert is a powerful data conversion and compression program. Block Convert performs spatial and temporal binning, to improve the efficiency of subsequent analysis operations. Other conversions include accumulation of block files, selection of specific conditions, and cropping the data to a smaller region of interest. The output format can be either an OI block file (which can be viewed with Block View, or further processed with WinMix), a series of floating point image frames stored in a standard, compressed ZIP archive, or a MatLab? format data file.
Featured Publications on OI Brain Imagers
White LE and Fitzpatrick D (2007) Vision and Cortical Map Development, Neuron 56 (2): 327-338.
Neuroscience Research. Windhorst U and Johansson H (Editors) Springer Verlag, pp 893-969.
Hubener M, Bonhoeffer T. Visual cortex: Two-photon excitement Current Biology 15 (6): R205-R208 mar 29 2005
Grinvald A, Hildesheim R. VSDI: A new era in functional imaging of cortical dynamics. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 5 (11): 874-885 nov 2004
Zapeda A, Arias C, Sengpiel F. Optical imaging of intrinsic signals: recent developments in the methodology and its applications. Journal Of Neuroscience Methods 136 (1): 1-21 jun 15 2004
Grinvald A, et al. (1999). In-vivo Optical Imaging of cortical Architecture and Dynamics. In Modern Techniques in Neuroscience Research. U. Windhorst and H. Johansson Springer, pp 893-969
Mrsic-Flogel T, Hubener M, Bonhoeffer T. Brain mapping: New wave optical Imaging. C urrent B iology 13 (19): R778-R780 SEP 30 2003
Grinvald A (1985). Real-time optical mapping of neuronal activity: from single growth cones to the intact mammalian brain. Ann Rev Neurosci, 8: 263-305.
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